Reverse Osmosis Chemicals - The use of high performance treatment chemicals is an essential component of any well managed reverse osmosis plant programme. Reverse Osmosis Chemicals International offer a complete range of advanced technology reverse osmosis treatment products that have been expertly reverse-osmosis-chemicals-research-labdeveloped to meet the following criteria:
Reverse osmosis membranes
The reverse osmosis (RO) membrane should be considered to be at the heart of any reverse osmosis plant system, and damage to it will cause reduced output, poor water quality and increased production costs. Most RO membranes in use today are made of cellulose acetate or polyamide, formed either as a tube (hollow fibre) or coated onto a polysulphone support sheet (thin film composite). The membrane, or rejecting layer, allows the passage of pure water but holds back the dissolved salts it contains.
Reverse osmosis plant recovery rates vary from as low as 10% in the case of sea water to 90% with some low salinity brackish waters. As the water passes along the membrane surface the salt concentration increases and some sparingly soluble salts exceed their solubility products. These salts can precipitate on the membrane surface causing fouling which may reduce output and increase the product water conductivity. The two most trouble¬some salts are calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate and their prevention is essential if the membrane is to work efficiently.
The use of sulphuric acid to 'de-alkalise' the feed water has been the traditional way of preventing calcium carbonate scaling. However, sulphuric acid is hazardous to handle, increases the sulphate content of the water and adds to the general corrosivity of the water on both sides of the membrane.
Calcium sulphate scale can be eliminated by lowering the recovery rate, which reduces the calcium and sulphate ion concentration in the water. Reducing the recovery rate is not always the best option as it means running the plant at lower efficiency. The best way to maintain cost effective production is to operate with recovery rates as high as possible whilst at the same time preventing membrane scaling.
Reverse osmosis chemicals
An operational management programme developed by Reverse Osmosis Chemicals International will help improve and then maintain high recovery rates, improve operational efficiency; and reduce scaling and corrosion risks. We offer a full range of advanced technology chemicals that offer significant operational performance benefits: